John Hanke, Brian McClendon, and a small team of engineers founded Keyhole in January 2001 with the goal of merging “vectors, images, and POIs into a single, seamless dataset to create the ultimate geographic reference platform.” They succeeded. Using their backgrounds in internet and 3D graphics, the team created a revolutionary framework for delivering terabytes of data within a 3D model of the planet.
Keyhole’s product, EarthViewer, quickly succeeded. By 2003, the CIA’s strategic investment branch In-Q-Tel announced an investment in the company based on the software's ability "radically enhance critical decision making." They quickly put it to use monitoring military operations in Iraq after Operation Iraqi Freedom.
Shortly after In-Q-Tel’s investment, Google announced their acquisition of Keyhole for an undisclosed amount. The search giant stated that the product’s rich database of roads, business, and points of interests, as well as their unique 3D interface, motivated the purchase.
After Google acquired Keyhole, they launched with four products.
Google Earth - Free
This free product was targeted at users who just wanted to explore the imagery stored in the GE database.
Google Earth Plus - $20
For the more advanced user, the plus version offered additional features to add your own data. It was discontinued in 2008, when most of its features were rolled into the free version.
Google Earth Pro - $400
Targeted at businesses needing to research, collaborate, and present on geo-spatial data, the pro version gave users advanced capabilities like measurements, data integration, and high-resolution imagery.
Google Earth Enterprise - Varies
A fully customized solution for large-scale businesses that have an integral need for geo-spatial data in their day-to-day operations.
The first major update to Google Earth since the company purchased Keyhole, V4 offered a cleaner user interface, updated 3D modelling capabilities, and a new time animation feature for showing historical data, as well as a host of smaller features.
Google Earth’s 5th version saw three major announcements: expanded historical imagery visualizations, the ability to explore the ocean, and a new recording feature that allowed you to capture and share a “tour” of locations in the software.
The 7th version of Google Earth, and the final major update before the company made all editions free, saw the release of new 3D imagery and a tour guide feature that would take users through famous landmarks.
A post on the Google Earth Blog reflects the growing concerns of the community: there have been no major feature updates since V5, developer support has declined, marketing activities have slowed, and user support has dwindled. The consensus seems to be that the company is turning to focus on Google Maps instead of Earth.
On the heels of growing concerns from the Google Earth user base, Google announced Google Earth Pro would now be free. While increasing access to the software was seen as positive, most people interpreted this as a sign that Google would no longer be providing much support.
Google announced the deprecation of Google Earth Enterprise shortly after revealing that Google Earth would be made free. At the time it came as a surprise. In a 2017 interview a GEE engineer, Avnish Bhatnagar, stated, "GEE has always been a very niche product, focused on a very important user base, but percentage-wise, a very small one… the adoption rate was much, much lower than what Google likes to see for its products."
After deprecating Google Earth Enterprise, the company announced they would provide support for the product for two years. As the end of this period neared, there was enough continued interest in the software that Google decided to make it open source. Simultaneously they made a big push to get their GEE customers to host their instance of GEE on the Google Cloud Platform.
Google put a lot of publicity into announcing Google Earth 9 (Named 9 not 8 because it’s a closer relative to Google Earth 8 for Android than Google Earth 7 for desktop.) The biggest change was the move to a browser-based app instead of desktop software. Most long-time Google Earth Users, expressed disappointment that the version removed many of the features they felt made the software useful.
From a product perspective, there are essentially three Google Earth products currently available, two of which Google actively supports.
From a user perspective, I think this quote from Google Earth Blog founder Frank Taylor best summarizes the current state of Google Earth users:
...in recent years, Google Earth development languished. Staff was reduced, and during the last three years all of the top staff who were involved with its original creation have left... I realize all too well that many of the people who were die-hard fans of Google Earth 10 years ago, are no longer the fans of the product they once were… I have tried extremely hard to keep Google supporting Google Earth and its fans over the years. In a rare occurrence in my life: I give up.- Frank Taylor
The above timeline gives a solid overview of Google Earth’s evolution, but it only skims the surface of the product’s history. What it doesn’t cover is the overlapping, and sometimes competing, development of the Google Maps product - and the development of Google’s Geo Division as a whole.
Google created its Geo division by acquiring three companies in 2004, just before going public: Keyhole, Where 2 Technologies, and ZipDash. Essentially, Keyhole became Google Earth; Where 2 became Google Maps; and ZipDash became Google Maps Mobile.
While the purpose behind Google’s Geo division isn’t publicized, by piecing together information from interviews with members of the team, we can paint a picture of its ultimate goal.
Google has always been in the data business. And, it seems that more than producing GIS Software, a mapping application for the web, or some other instance of a program with a specific use-case, they are using these things to accomplish a much larger, data-related goal; organizing all of the world’s physical information.
Using Google Maps as a base, the company can create a framework to index the physical world in the same way it has indexed the World Wide Web. Within this larger context, it becomes clear the Keyhole acquisition was primarily for the technology behind organizing and rendering satellite imagery at scale.
While Google did probably think there was potential in Google Earth as a paid GIS software product, this effort was most likely a bonus that came along with acquiring the Keyhole codebase. Once it became clear that the returns on the Google Earth product wouldn’t be high enough to make it worthwhile, they were fine to abandon development and give it away for free to focus on their larger goal.
Essentially Google Earth was a opportunistic spin-off of a larger project, and never received the support the community wanted because it wasn’t profitable enough.
The answer depends on what you're looking to do. If you're just looking to explore interactive photos of the Earth, then Google Earth 9 is an excellent product. But, if you’re interested in using Google Earth to organize and analyze information as it relates to its location, then you likely need to find another product.
There are a number of alternatives available, and the best one will depend on what exactly you're trying to do and the industry you are in. Check out these popular options to get started: